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RS2013 Courses:
- Reducing Space Mission Cost and Schedule
- Complying with ITAR

RS2013 Sponsors

AIAA

ATK

Northop Grumman

Raytheon

Lockheed Martin

Boeing

Orbital Sciences Corporation

SpaceX

United Launch Alliance

Orbital Systems, Ltd.

Northop Grumman

Microcosm, Inc.

Scorpius

Space News

Tec Vegas


RS2012 Sponsors

ATK

Sierra Nevada Corporation

SpaceX

Boeing Company

Northop Grumman

Space News

Astrobooks.com

Microcosm, Inc.


Orbital Sciences Corporation

Lockheed Martin


Raytheon

Comtech AeroAstro

Ball Aerospace & Technologies Corp.

Northop Grumman

Scorpius Space Launch Company

AIAA
 

Past Conference Papers:

Education


Paper Number RS1-2003-1005: Building a Cadre of Space Professionals: Hands-On Space Experience at the USAF Academy
Jerry J. Sellers (USAFA), Timothy J. Lawrence (USAFA)
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Abstract:
The paper describes small satellite research at USAF Academy’s Space Systems Research Center. The program’s goals are to give students the opportunity to “learn space by doing space” while delivering useful science results to the US Department of Defense. Background on the programs is first presented followed by details of the current satellite and rocket projects. The paper concludes with a discussion of the challenges of finding reliable, timely launch opportunities to sustain rapid system development and educational opportunities. Ongoing efforts by USAFA to investigate a rapid, nanosatellite launch capability are then described.  
 

Paper Number RS1-2003-4004: University Collaborations: Jumpstarting Industry Responsiveness to Space
Ray Haynes (NGST)
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Paper Number RS2-2004-2005: Responsive Space Requires Responsive Manufacturing
Todd Mosher (USU), Brent Stucker (USU)
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Abstract:
In order to meet the responsive space needs of the future, improvements need to be made not only to the product of satellites themselves, but also the process by which they are created. While many continue to focus primarily on product innovation, with the exception of large commercial satellite projects like communication satellites, the Boeing 601/702 platform, and the Iridium program, few are successfully addressing how do we change how we build satellites rather than changing the satellites we build. Small satellites especially offer opportunities for process innovation and the application of advanced manufacturing techniques to this process. Within the mechanical and aerospace engineering department at Utah State University, professors in space engineering and advanced manufacturing have teamed to focus on making satellite manufacture more responsive. Through a series of studies for the U.S. government, concepts to realize responsive manufacturing to enable responsive space will be discussed and reported.  
 

Paper Number RS2-2004-2006: EyasSAT™: Creating a Progressive Space Workforce - Today
Obadiah NG Ritchey (USAFA), David J. Barnhart (USAFA), Jerry J. Sellers (USAFA), Jim W. White (USAFA), John B. Clark (USAFA)
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Abstract:
The Department of Astronautics at the United States Air Force Academy has transformed the way spacecraft systems engineering is taught, but more importantly, the way it is experienced by the students. The development is called EyasSAT™—a miniaturized, fully-functional satellite model that is “flown” in the classroom. EyasSAT literally means “baby FalconSAT”, where FalconSAT is the name of the flagship program at USAFA where students work as a team their senior year to design, build, launch, or operate a real satellite performing DoD science. To prepare for this interdisciplinary experience students take the prerequisite course titled “Spacecraft Systems Engineering”. Students in this course work in small teams to build up an EyasSAT unit, subsystem by subsystem, after the design issues are covered in the classroom. This material is declared a work of the U.S. Government and is not subject to copyright protection in the United States. The premise is simple: EyasSAT is composed of intelligent, stand-alone hardware modules built with COTS components that are integrated through a flexible data and power bus. Instead of designing and building each subsystem in detail, EyasSAT allows students the opportunity to perform acceptance and verification testing on the hardware as they learn about each subsystem in the classroom. This matches the spirit of the course which is to broadly cover all spacecraft system and subsystem level issues and not to cover one subsystem in great detail. After each subsystem is characterized in the lab, it is stacked up in an integrated fashion, ultimately producing a picosatellite-sized fully-operational system by the end of the semester. Telemetry and data commands are accomplished through any telephony device that supports the terminal standard. EyasSAT also can be easily expanded through additional modules to support teaching or commercial objectives. AIAA 2nd Responsive Space Conference 2004 1 The EyasSAT concept exemplifies the idea of ‘progressive space’: education is the foundation for future space practice. By leveraging a new way of educating space professionals, a new breed of progressive thought is created—one that is open to new ideas, faster project turn-around, and betterversed, total-systems-based, engineering. This paper outlines the objectives and the requirements for the concept, as well as assembly, integration and testing requirements to quantify the system. System characterization is likewise covered.   
 

Paper Number RS2-2004-5004: Leveraging COTS Hardware for Rapid Design and Development of Small Satellites at the USAF Academy
Cristin Anne Smith (USAFA)
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Abstract:
The purpose of the United States Air Force Academy (USAFA) Space Systems Research Program is to give cadets the opportunity to “learn space by doing space” while also providing an orbiting platform for Air Force and Department of Defense (DoD) science experiments as FalconSAT-3 is designed to do. This paper describes small satellite programs at the U.S. Air Force Academy’s Space Systems Research Center. FalconSAT- 2 and FalconSAT-3 are student-built small satellites that provide low-cost access to space for DoD space research & development payloads as well as platforms for student experiments. Rapid, low-cost design is achieved by leveraging Commercial Off-the- Shelf (COTS) hardware to the greatest extent possible. FalconsSAT-2, still searching for an alternate launch opportunity, was the first to demonstrate the use of COTS modules for this use. FalconSAT-3, scheduled to be launched in 2006, recently completed critical design and built upon the successful FalconSAT-2 experience to develop an even more capable spacecraft bus. By using the off-the-shelf equipment, student involvement in satellite and mission design has been accelerated and provided the capability to challenge students This paper is declared a work of the U.S. Government and is not subject to copyright protection in the United States. through more intense participation over the years. Realizing the rapid turnover and extended commitments of students in a senior undergraduate program, there is a delicate balance to be found; one between comprehensive mission and satellite design requirements, and adequate experience in a multi-million dollar, real world space program. The development of the FalconSAT program will first be described in the context of the progress made, followed by a more detailed discussion of the COTS hardware for more efficient development of small student satellites as simple payload platforms for educational and technological purposes.   
 

Paper Number RS2-2004-7003: A Status Report on the Development of a Nanosat Launch Vehicle and Associated Launch Vehicle Technologies
John M. Garvey (Garvey Space Corporation), Eric Besnard (CSULB)
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Abstract:
Much current attention on responsive launch capabilities is focusing on small launch vehicles that can deliver on the order of several hundred kilograms to low Earth orbit. However, for developers and operators of even smaller spacecraft with masses on the order of 10 or less kilograms, i.e. “nanosats” and “picosats,” this class of launch systems is still oversized and the costs are at least a magnitude too great. Consequently, an effort is presently under way to address this evolving launch service niche. Through the California Launch Vehicle Education Initiative (CALVEIN), a joint academic-industry team is developing and flight testing a series of prototype vehicles that are demonstrating and evaluating candidate technologies and operations for a notional nanosat launch vehicle – an “NLV” – that could deliver 10 kg to low polar orbit. To date, this program, which is hosted by the California State University, Long Beach, in partnership with Garvey Spacecraft Corporation, has developed four reusable LOX/ethanol launch vehicles and participated in seven flight tests as well as a similar number of static fire tests at the Mojave Test Area. Principal accomplishments include the first-ever powered flight test of a liquid propellant aerospike engine. In parallel, several classes of aerospace engineering students have gained invaluable experience working with actual flight hardware. Photo by Tony Richards This paper reports on the results of several recent NLVrelated research and development activities. These include the pioneering aerospike flight tests, ongoing development of low-cost thrust vector control subsystems and an initial static fire test using propylene as an alternative hydrocarbon fuel. 
 

Paper Number RS3-2005-3001: Cubesats As Responsive Satellites
Armen Toorian (Cal Poly, San Luis Obispo), Emily Blundell (Cal Poly, San Luis Obispo), Jordi Puig Suari (Cal Poly San Luis Obispo), Robert Twiggs (Stanford)
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Abstract:
California Polytechnic State University, in coordination with Stanford University, has developed the CubeSat standard to provide inexpensive and timely access to space for small payloads. These picosatellites, built mostly by universities, are 10 centimeter cubes with a mass of 1 kilogram. Of the 40 or so participating universities and private firms, more than 60% of CubeSat developers reside in the United States. Our goal is to make launching these satellites easy and cost effective by coordinating launches and providing a reliable deployment system. This paper will discuss Cal Poly’s role in the CubeSat program, and the characteristics of the project which create practical, reliable, and costeffective launch opportunities.  
 

Paper Number RS3-2005-5006: How Not to Design an Avionics System
Jason E. Holt (Brigham Young University)
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Abstract:
In 1995, four Utah Universities launched a hybrid sounding rocket at the Utah Test and Training Range. In December 2003, they successfully launched a much larger successor to that rocket. We describe the design, construction, deconstruction, redesign and reconstruction of the avionics package during the 8 year period between flights, then describe the system which was actually flown. That package used COTS hardware worth less than $1000, was substantially redesigned within weeks of the launch, and was completely destroyed after an entirely successful flight upon an otherwise soft, vertical landing. Although the package met only simple requirements and used no cutting-edge hardware, we feel that the lessons we learned from both technical and social standpoints will be useful to others who wish to rapidly develop avionics systems despite severely limited resources. Furthermore, we describe a new, straightforward design for the core control system which is a result of the lessons we learned, and which we hope will be flexible enough to meet the continuing demands of our project and potentially many other projects as well.   
 

Paper Number RS4-2006-3004: Bandit: A Platform for Responsive Educational and Research Activies
Michael Swartwout (Washington University in St. Louis)
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Abstract:
There are many potential paths to improving the responsiveness of space systems. At Washington University, we are investigating three: drastically-reduced spacecraft size, drastically-reduced mission lifetime, and pre-placement of assets on-orbit. Extremely small spacecraft (under 10kg) are believed to be more responsive due to their low part count (reducing cost / time of fabrication and assembly), ease of handling/integration and increased ability to fit in the unused corners of payload fairings (i.e., as lastminute additions to already-manifested launches). Missions that last days or hours have significantly less risk of environmental degradation and need less power margin, allowing the use of less-expensive parts and/or eliminating redundant systems. The combination of small size and short mission enables such vehicles to be pre-positioned on larger host vehicles, allowing them to be activated as needed for their specific mission. From an education standpoint, very small, short-duration spacecraft are within the capabilities of an undergraduate team to design, build and operate within their “lifetime” as students. What missions – if any – can be met by such small, short-duration systems? We believe that one such mission is on-orbit servicing. On-orbit servicing (inspection, repair, refueling) is a key enabling technology for future missions, and it has “responsive” needs of its own. In 2005, both NASA and the Air Force flew demonstration servicing missions, with several more planned for the near future. Servicing missions have both ‘long-period’ functions (power generation, long-range communications, momentum management) and mission-specific ‘short-period’ functions (agile maneuvers over small distances, sensing, mechanical manipulation). The recent servicing missions described above use the same vehicle for both long-period and short-period functions, which results in a spacecraft larger than strictly necessary for servicing. Instead, we propose the Bandit concept, which splits the long-period and short-period functions between a host vehicle and a drone vehicle. Bandit has the following enabling elements: • A very small (< 10kg), maneuverable drone capable of independent (or lightly supervised) operation on 10 or more sorties lasting up to 2 hours each • A host vehicle (possibly the service recipient) with the following interfaces: - A launch containment system to carry the drone to orbit - An on-orbit docking system to allow a drone to “sleep” between sorties - A recharging (and possibly refueling) system in conjunction with the dock. - A short-range, low-power communications link to the drone This concept also creates “responsive” engineering education; early student teams create the platform and design/test infrastructure, and successive generations improve on the design. We have already seen the benefits of this approach over the past four years. At present, Bandit-C is being developed as part of the AFRL/NASA/AIAA University Nanosat-4 student satellite competition. This paper outlines the Bandit mission in more detail, including current design, prototyping activities and functional/environmental testing. Special emphasis is placed on hardware testing using a 3DOF air-bearing testbed and operations/autonomous control testing on the 6DOF software-based simulator. Design of the 25 kg host spacecraft Akoya is also discussed. We conclude by presenting sample missions for future Bandits.
 

Paper Number RS4-2006-3005: ORS Phase III Bus Standards Status
J. Christopher Garner (US Naval Research Laboratory), Michael Hurley (US Naval Research Laboratory), Gurpatap S. Sandhoo (US Naval Research Laboratory), Eric J. Finnegan (Johns Hopkins University/Applied Physics Laboratory), Patrick A. Stadter (Johns Hopkins University/Applied Physics Laboratory), Brian Kantsiper (Johns Hopkins University/Applied Physics Laboratory)
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Abstract:
The U.S. Naval Research Laboratory and the Johns Hopkins University/Applied Physics Laboratory are collaborating with many industry partners to write bus standards for responsive spacecraft buses as part of the ORS/JWS Phase III. The next Phase, Phase IV led by SMC, will use the standards as input to the procurement of responsive spacecraft buses in 2008. More than 8 industry partners (Spectrum-Astro, Design-Net, Swales, Orbital, Raytheon, Loral-Microcosm, and Microsat Systems Inc) are under contract to NRL to participate in the integrated systems engineering team (ISET). The ISET has been meeting since June 2005 and has produced the first drafts of the payload developers guide (PDG) and the bus standards documents. Currently, an NRL/APL team is working to develop a prototype spacecraft bus to mature portions of the standards and supply the spacecraft bus for the TacSat 4 mission. This paper will discuss the ISET team process in developing the bus standards and the progress of experimentation with the prototype bus. Phases I-III of this effort are funded by OSD’s Office of Force Transformation, Phase IVeffort will be funded by SMC.